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related to One in 10 people Feel bloating after meals, usually in the form of gasses or an uncomfortable feeling of fullness in the stomach.

As a gastroenterologist and associate professor of medicine Harvard Medical SchoolI am often asked: What causes bloating and how can I stop it?

Bloating is difficult to understand because there is Many possible reasons. But a common cause is related to what we eat, especially food Poorly absorbed by the intestine.

If you often feel bloated after eating, avoid these foods to reduce stomach pain:

Fructose malabsorption occurs in approx 50% of the population. This happens when our intestinal cells have a hard time absorbing fructose.

Small amounts of fructose are fine, but stay away from foods sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup such as:

  • Candy
  • Packaged bread and baked goods
  • Packaged fruit
  • Sweetened dairy products like yogurt
  • A sauce like ketchup
  • Soft drinks and juices

Instead, eat whole foods and drink low-sugar drinks. Carbonation can cause bloatingSo choose plain water or vegetable juice.

If you are sensitive to fructose, avoid (or eat only in moderation) sweet fruits such as:

  • apple
  • watermelon
  • grapes
  • grapefruit
  • Nectarine
  • plum
  • peach
  • ripe banana
  • lay off
  • raisins

To get my fruit fix, I eat blackberries, blueberries, strawberries, pineapple, mandarin oranges, lemons, or firm, slightly unripe bananas.

Even vegetables can cause bloating, especially if there are a lot of them Fructans and galactans (carbohydrates broken down by gut bacteria, which can cause gasses).

These vegetables can cause bloating:

  • Asparagus
  • zucchini
  • onion
  • Shallots
  • Leaks
  • Asparagus
  • Artichokes
  • bit
  • Brussels sprouts
  • Cabbage is a type of cabbage
  • fennel
  • Snow branch

Go for low-sugar options like carrots, eggplant, avocado, green beans, bean sprouts, celery, cauliflower and lettuce.

Affects lactose intolerance 68% of the population And becomes more common as we age.

Lactose-free products can be substituted for dairy products (milk or ice cream) to reduce bloating, but not all of your options are off the table.

Unsweetened yogurt is tolerated by most people, as most of the lactose is broken down. And hard or aged cheeses (parmesan, brie, mozzarella, swiss and goat cheese) are more likely to be tolerated than soft cheeses.

Contains lentils, peas and many beans raffinose, a type of sugar that the body has trouble breaking down. Beans are also rich in fiber, and a high intake can increase gassiness.

Black beans, navy beans, kidney beans, pinto beans, and soy beans are more likely to give you gas. Go for green beans, black eyed peas and mung beans instead.

Avoid sugar alcohols (that end in -ol) such as sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol and erythritol. they are Gas and often cause bloating Because we cannot break them.

Stevia and monk fruit extracts are healthy and less likely to cause gas or bloating.

Foods that contain gluten can cause bloating in people who are intolerant. If this is you, avoid wheat, barley and rye.

Eat foods that are less rough on the gut, such as rice, quinoa, oats, and other gluten-free products.

You can eat fermented foods Strengthen your gut microbiome. But some may cause temporary bloating and gas. I recommend limiting your kimchi, kombucha and sauerkraut intake for a more comfortable stomach.

In addition to diet, I tell patients to do four things to prevent further bloating:

  1. Avoid swallowing air. Eat slowly and carefully chew small bites of food. Do not lie down while eating and avoid talking while chewing food or drinking liquids.
  2. Drink plenty of plain water. Stay away from soda and carbonated drinks.
  3. Go for a short walk 10 to 15 minutes after eating. Research has found That it helps speed up the time it takes for food to travel from the stomach to the small intestine.
  4. Massage your abdomen to remove gas and stool. If your entire abdomen is bloated, massage from the right hip to your right side, across your upper abdomen and your left side to your pelvis. If only your lower abdomen is swollen, massage from your right side to your left side and down.

These tips are based on my medical experience and research. But if you have serious or chronic problems with swelling, it is better to consult your doctor.

Dr. Jacqueline WolfeMD, is an Associate Professor of Medicine Harvard Medical School and a gastroenterologist Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston. He is the author of “A Woman’s Guide to a Healthy Stomach: Taking Control of Your Digestive Healthand its co-founder Food HealthA food education nonprofit.

Dr. Judy NeeMD, an assistant professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, contributed to this article.

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